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Аракин В.Д. Практический курс английского языка. 2 курс (7-е изд. Владимира Дмитриевича Аракина одного из замечательных лингвистов России Настоящая книга


НазваниеВладимира Дмитриевича Аракина одного из замечательных лингвистов России Настоящая книга
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142. State whether the -ing- form is a participle, a gerund or a verbal noun:


1. To my mind the setting of the scene was beautiful. 2. As to his stooping, it was natural when dancing with a small person like myself, so much shorter than he. 3. I found him in exactly the position I had left him, staring still at the foot of the bed. 4. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time. 5. There you can see the Fire of London with the flames coming out of the windows of the houses. 6. Having finished the work, he seemed more pleased with himself than usual. 7. Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me. 8. I admired the grounds and trees surrounding the house. 9: Father said that we were not to let the fact of his not having had a real holiday for three years stand in our way. 10. I saw there wooden cabins with beds, electric light, running water. 11. Most Englishmen are not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills them without leaving sufficient room for the more important meat course. 12. The evening meal goes under various names: tea, "high tea," dinner or supper depending upon its size and also social standing of those eating it. 13. Colleges give a specialized training. 14.1 want you to give my hair a good brushing. 15. The boys could not go without asking permission. 16.1 am much pleased with my surroundings.

143. Point out the verbals and comment on them:


1. She often took care of my little sister Polly giving me a possibility to play with other boys in the neighbourhood. 2. Having bathed her face in cold water, she came up to the window and burst it open. 3. Renton Heath is a charming village, situated in the loveliest part of the West of England? 4. "I'm leaving for South America and have come to say good-bye," Jim said staring into her eyes. 5. She seemed to be asking not him but herself. 6.1 seated myself at the table and was on the point of filling my cup from the teapot when the sound of the door opening made me look up. 7. After spending the night in the farm, the weather remaining fine, they set out again on their journey in the same way. 8. He had to stand aside for the maid to carry in the luncheon. 9. I'm afraid I never seem to get any time for reading. 10. He began moving away down the drive, keeping his eyes on Dixon. 11. It's no use trying to argue with me. 12. Looking in Ferrand's face he saw to his dismay tears rolling down his cheeks. 13. He said it bending forward to be out of hearing of the girl. 14. Douglas sat down again, having evidently changed his mind about going. 15. When we had lain on the bank for some time without speaking I saw a man approaching from the far end of the field. 16. I know why I make you laugh. It's because you're so far above me in every way that I am somehow ridiculous. 17. It was past two o'clock when she heard the car return. There were steps on the gravel, the opening and shutting of the door, a brief murmur of voices — then silence. 18. From room to room he went and, though each gave signs of having recently been occupied, it was clear that its inhabitants had departed. 19. Were it not for his having asked me to spend a week with him in the country, I should certainly be very glad to go with you to Madrid. 20. Get a blanket spread and make them hold it tight. 21. The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts. 22. "Three years ago it was," she broke off and stood still, her mouth set in a rigid grimace of pain. 23. He felt anger against the gipsy for having given them such a fright.

CONTENTS


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

ESSENTIAL COURSE

UNIT ONE

TEXT. ANNE MEETS HER GLASS
TOPIC: CHOOSING А CAREES
UNIT TWO

TEXT. A DAY'S WAIT by Ernest Hemingway
TOPIC: ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT
UNIT THREE

TEXT. INTRODUCING LONDON
TOPIC: CITY
UNIT FOUR

TEXT. HOW WE KEPT MOTHER'S DAY by Stephen Leacock
TOPIC: MEALS
UNIT FIVE

TEXT. A FRESHMAN'S EXPERIENCE From "Daddy Long-Legs" by Jean Webster
TOPIC: EDUCATION
UNIT SIX

TEXT. A FRIEND IN NEED by William Somerset Maugham (abridged)
TOPIC: SPORTS AND GAMES
UNIT SEVEN

TEXT. THE BRITISH ISLES
TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY
UNIT EIGHT

TEXT. SEEING PEOPLE OFF By Max Beerbohm
TOPIC: TRAVELLING
UNIT NINE

TEXT. ROSE AT THE MUSIC-HALL From "They Walk in the City" by J. B. Priestley
TOPIC: THEATRE
SUPPLEMENT

A. CLASSROOM ENGLISH
B. CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES
EXERCISES IN INTONATION

SECTION ONE. Review of Fundamental Intonation Patterns and Their Use
SECTION TWO. Intonation Pattern IX. High fall
SECTION THREE. Intonation Pattern X (LOW PRE-HEAD+) RISING HEAD + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
SECTION FOUR. Intonation Pattern XI (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) FALLING HEAD+ HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
SECTION FIVE Compound Tunes FALL + RISE
SECTION SIX Compound Tunes TWO OR MORE FALLS WITHIN ONE SENSE-GROUP
SECTION SEVEN Intonation pattern XII I. (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) HIGH RISE (+TAIL) II. (LOW PRE-HEAD + ) (HIGH HEAD+) HIGH RISE ( + TAIL)
SECTION EIGHT. HIGH PRE-HEAD
SUPPLEMENT
GRAMMAR EXERCISES

REVISION EXERCISES ON TENSE AND VOICE
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD AND THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

MODAL VERBS

REVISION EXERCISES ON MOOD AND MODAL VERBS
NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

The Infinitive
The Gerund
The Participles
REVISION EXERCISES ON THE VERBAIS



Учебное издание

Аракин Владимир Дмитриевич, Селянина Лидия Ивановна, Куценко Алла Владимировна

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

2курс

Учебник для студентов высших учебных заведений

7-е издание, дополненное и исправленное

Сдано в набор 15.01.05. Подписано в начать 20.05.05.


2 на листе 5000 сум
216,1,214,3,212,5,210,7,208,9,206,11,204,13,202,15,200,17,198,19,196,21,194,23,192,25,190,27,188,29,186,31,184,33,182,35,180,37,178,39,176,41,174,43,172,45,170,47,168,49,166,51,164,53,162,55,160,57,158,59,156,61,154,63
152,65,150,67,148,69,146,71,144,73,142,75,140,77,138,79,136,81,134,83,132,85,130,87,128,89,126,91,124,93,122,95,120,97,118,99,116,101,114,103,112,105,110,107

обратка
108,109,106,111,104,113,102,115,100,117,98,119,96,121,94,123,92,125,90,127,88,129,86,131,84,133,82,135,80,137,78,139,76,141,74,143,72,145,70,147,68,149,66,151,64,153,62,155,60,157,58,159,56,161,54,163,52,165,50,167,48,169
46,171,44,173,42,175,40,177,38,179,36,181,34,183,32,185,30,187,28,189,26,191,24,193,22,195,20,197,18,199,16,201,14,203,12,205,10,207,8,209,6,211,4,213,2,215
для транскрипционных знаков использован шрифт PhoneticTM. Но в принципе транскрипции в этом томе мало.



N
.И., Куценко А.В., Поповой В.В. и др. «Пособие к практическому курсу английского языка» под ред. В.Д. Аракина (находится в печати).

Бархударов N.
С, ДйпелцнгД А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1965; НА. Кобрина, ЕЛ. Корнеева. An English Gramma. М., Просвещение, 1985; ВЗ. Гуревич. Practical English Gramma. М., «Наука», 2003. Kaushanskiya Υ. L and others. A Grammar of the English Language. Leningrad, 1959.


n

School terms in Great Britain are arranged in the following way:

Usually called Approximate dates

the first term the antumn term Sept 5 — Dec. 20

the second term the winter term or spring term Jan. 5 — Mar. 25 (or later, depending on the date of Easter)

the third term the summerterm Apr. 15 (or later) — Jul. 20

to can the register
is used only if the names are called out and the pupils answer. To mark smb. present/absent is often used in connection with registration. The expression to take the register is also used in the sense of "mark".

In schools the form teacher marks the register every morning before lessons, and often before afternoon lessons too. The register is a book with a list of the pupils' full names, addresses and dates of birth. When marked, the register is usually kept in the school office, and not taken to lessons.

In universities and colleges there is generally no formal marking of a register by the teaching staff.

cupboard
n: a cabinet or closet fitted with shelves.

Borstal: an institution (like a prison) for young criminals.

break n: This is widely used in schools to denote a 10- or 20-minute interval in the middle of the morning (11—11.30).

Morning break and afternoon break are used in schools which also have a break between afternoon lessons. Lunch break can be used as a translation of «большая перемена». Break may also be used of the shorter time allowed for changing lessons.

Break is not generally used in universities and colleges, except in the sense of the 5- to 10-minute break between one class and the next, because there are usually no other breaks besides the lunch hour.


Кириллова Е.П., Сергиевская Е.Г. Методические рекомендации к учебному фильму на английском языке «М-р Браун в отпуске" 1978.

Germ.): darling


Pyle, Howard (1853-1911): an American illustrator, painter and author.

to summarize (or to give a summary): to give a short version (usu. in reported speech) of a passage, story, novel, etc. containing its main points only.




mime has two meanings: 1. a performance without words (пантомима); 2. an actor in such a performance (мим).


A. D. = Anno Domini (Lat.): in the year of the Lord, new era ['isre].

Greater London includes the suburbs of the city all of which are connected with the centre of London and with each other by underground railway lines.

mile: a measure of length, 1609 metres. English measures of length (yard — 91 cm, foot — 30 cm, inch — 2.5 cm), weight (stone — 6 kg, pound — 454 g, ounce — 31 g), liquids (gallon — 3.79 lit, pint — 0.57 lit) are not based on the decimal system.

pound: a monetary unit circulating in Great Britain. Up to 1971 English money with its pennies, shillings and pounds was not based on the decimal system either: 12 pence for a shilling, 20 shillings for a pound, 21 shillings for a guinea, the latter got its name from the first coin struck from gold on the coast of Guinea. In 1971 Britain changed over to, decimal currency system — 100 new pence to the pound (£). New coins (or pieces) were introduced: the 1/

The Daily Express: a "popular" paper for those who prefer entertainment to information. It is largely filled with sporting news, accounts of crime, advertisements (ads.), gossip of little worth (about private life of society people, film stars, etc.) and strip cartoons. Other popular papers are The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Mail. This kind of newspapers is called the tabloids.

The Daily Telegraph: a daily London newspaper of conservative orientation. It is a "quality" paper for educated readers who are interested in important domestic and foreign news. Other quality papers are The Observer, The Guardian, The Times and The Independent.

Constable, John (1776-1837): a famous English painter.


Barrie, James M. (1860-1937): a Scottish novelist. Peter Pan — a fairy-tale boy who refused to grow up preferring to lead children into his magic "Never-Never Land" where they fought pirates.

The Duke of Wellington (1769-1852): a famous British general whose army defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815

Nelson, Horatio (1758-1805): an English admiral who won the battle of Trafalgar (the Atlantic coast of Spain)


Xmas [krIsmqs]: an abbreviated form of Christmas. In England Christmas day (the 25th of December) is one of the biggest holidays, devoted especially to family reunion and merry-making with its traditional Christmas tree and Christmas pudding.

mantelpiece: a structure of brick, wood or marble above and around a fire-place —an open grate where a coal fire burns. Most old English houses have no central heating. Up to now a great number of flats are warmed by coal fires. Sometimes instead of a coal fire a gas fire or an electric fire may be used, which is more convenient, as it can be lit in a second and turned off as soon as it is not needed.

sandwich: two slices of buttered bread with meat, egg, cheese or tomato, etc. between them (cf. the Russian бутерброд). The word has one more meaning: a sandwich (or a sandwich-man, a sandwich-boy) is a man walking along the street with two advertisement-boards hung one in front of him and one behind.






A college is sometimes a part of a university. For instance the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and London are composed of groups of largely autonomous colleges. On the other hand a college may be quite independent. There is a great number of such colleges in Great Britain (technical and commercial colleges, colleges of art, etc.),





polysyllables: words of more than two syllables; they usually have two stresses: the secondary (,) and the main (,)stress, е. д.




reader a university teacher of a rank immediately below a professor,

lecturer: a person lower in rank than a reader who gives lectures, especially at a college or university.


By Subject studies a broad range of subjects is meant of which a student is to choose two cores (the main subjects).

Education studies means essential knowledge of children, the curriculum, the organization of schools and classes.

hostel, used only of student hostels (the abbreviated form hall, with no article, is widely used by students in everyday situations). Hostel is a more general word (a nurses' hostel, a factory hostel, ayouth hostel, etc.).


. D.: Doctor of Philosophy (title given to completion of any research, no matter which subject you study)

mortar board: a flat-topped student's cap

Don: a college tutor who directs the studies of undergraduates

I.Q. Intelligence Quotient — a number indicating the level of a person's mental development obtained by multiplying his mental age by 100, and dividing the result by his chronological age, the latter generally cot exceeding 16.

to swim for one's university: to take part in swimming races held between one's university team and some other teams. Practically every school, college and university in Great Britain has its own sports clubs, and there are various outdoor sports competitions held annually within each school, as well as between different schools, colleges, and universities. These are, as a rule, attended by spectators drawn from all sections of the public, and the Oxford and Cambridge boat races, in which crews from these two universities compete every spring on the Thames, arouse national interest.

net-ball: an English game, basically the same as basket-ball (played by women)

94,250 square miles: this is about the same size as New Zealand or half the size of France.

the Fens: low marshy land with lots of waterways (Фенленд)

moors (pl),moor: an area of open waste land; moors in England and Scotland are often used for preserving game.

The Channel Tunnel, which links England and France, is a little over 50 km (31 miles) long, of which nearly 38 km (24 miles) are actually under the English Channel.

"the Scott country": a hilly country in the south-east of Scotland where Sir Walter Scott (1777-1832), the famous British poet and novelist, lived.

the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills): a wool-producing country in Britain. The Cheviot breed of sheep has given its name to a woollen cloth of high quality.

the Lake District: a beautiful place that has become famous thanks to a distinguished trio of poets — William Wordsworth (1770-1850), Samuel Coleridge (1772-1834) and Robert Southey (1774-1843) - who made their homes therе. ("Lake poets" is the name that was given to them.)



hedge: a row of bushes or low trees which are forming a kind of barrier.

Trinidad; an island in the Atlantic, to the north-east of South America

Tahiti: an island in the Pacific

Max Beerbohm (1872-1956): an English essayist, critic and caricaturist

Euston: a railway-station in London

boat-train: the train that takes passengers to a ship

coach: a long-distance bus

music-hall: a hall or theatre used for variety entertainment: songs, dancing, acrobatic performances, juggling. (Note: "music-hall" must not be confused with "concert-hall".)

the doors for the second house were just opening: the second per­formance was about to begin. In music-halls and in circuses two or more performances with the same programme are given every day.

The same term is used with reference to cinemas: the first (second, third) house первый (второй, третий) сеанс.

picture theatre (colloq.): a cinema

turns: (here) actors taking part in the programme. Turn — a short per­formance on the stage of a music-hall or a variety theatre (номер програм­мы). The programme of a variety perfomance usually consists of various turns.

little people: (here) fairies, elves, and gnomes of folklore



(also: theatre-house).

The long rows of chairs situated on the ground floor of the auditorium in. front of the stage are called the stalls (front rows) and the pit (back rows).

The stalls and the pit are surrounded by boxes. There are also some balconies encircling the auditorium on three sides. The lowest of them (coming immediately above the boxes) is called the dress-circle and the highest (somewhere near the ceiling of the house) is known as the gallery.

In most theatres the seats for the audience are separated from the stage by the orchestra-pit. In some theatres, however, there is no orchestra-pit, and the musicians are placed behind the scenes (back-stage). The sides of the stage and the scenery placed there are called wings.


The actors taking part in the play are called the cast (cf. the Russian «состав исполнителей»).




They decided that the strike should continue, instead of They decided to continue the strike. See: "A Practical English Grammar for Foreign Students" by A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, Lnd., 1964, p. 174-175.


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