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Английский. Unit 5 Задание 1 Ex. I, p. 158

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Unit 5

Задание 1:

Ex. I, p. 158

Pattern 1: 1. By the end of the working day he would v .c for her at the factory gate, and they went home together. 2. The spring days were warm and sunny, and the children would spend much time out of doors. 3. When they sometimes asked him about his college days, he would answer that he had greatly enjoyed going to college. 4. The mother never complained; she would only sigh and go on with her work. 5. Her husband often came back tired and angry; at table he would find fault with the cooking. 6. When we told the mother how good everything tasted, she would say, "Hunger is the best sauce."

P a t t e r n 2:1. He used to say that there was no game like football. 2. She used to leave the dishes unwashed in the kitchen sink and go away. 3. When he was a student, he used to go to the library every other day. 4. My mother used to make a splendid chocolate tart for my birthday. 5. When I was a child, our family used to go to the seaside for summer holidays. 6. When he was younger, he was a pretty good dancer.

P a t t e r n 3:1.I am not used to being treated in this way. 2. She wasn't used to being made fun of. 3. The doctor was used to treating this horrible disease. 4. I am used to working by such light. 5. The child was used to being refused nothing/to having all his wishes fulfilled.

Ex. II, p. 159

1. It was Doctor Temple who cured Mrs. Greene's husband of his stomach disease. 2. It was Steve who treated them all to ice-creams. 3. It was her brother who told us all about that terrible accident. 4. It was your rudeness that made her cry. 5. It is -ny mother who does the cooking lor all the family. 6. It was those books that made such a deep impression on him and decided his future. 7. It is this noise that doesn't let me concentrate on my work. 8. It was their own poems that these students recited at the last party with a great success./It was these students who recited their own poems at the last party with a great success.

Ex. III, p. 159

1. He used to say that the best remedy for nervous diseases was work. 2. It was Mummy, not I who decorated the table with flowers so nicely. 3. Every time he came he would bring me books I was to read. 4. I am not used to singing before/for/in front of such a large audience, but today I will. 5. It was quinsy, not pneumonia, that he

was treated for with this medicine. 6. You used to come home much later before. 7. Whenever it rained, he would feel worse. 8. You don't seem to like Doctor March, do you? But it was he who cured me of that terrible cough. 10. From time to time he would turn a page pretending to read.

Ex. IV, p.159

Ex. V, p. 160

Задание 2:

Ex. III, p.167
Ex. VII, р. 168

A. blank wall — a wall with no doors, windows or other openings — глухая стена blank look — 1. a puzzled look — озадаченный вид; 2. an expressionless look — ничего не выражающий взгляд?1 3. a look without interest or understanding —

безучастный или бессмысленный взгляд blank verse — unrhymed poetry —

белый стих blank sheet — a sheet of paper without writing, print or othe marks — чистый лист бумаги blank form — a form that has not been filled in —

незаполненный бланк

blank cheque — 1. a cheque signed and given to smb. to writ in whatever amount they want to receive — незаполнен | ный чек, чек на предъявителя; 2. complete freedom t act as smb. thinks best — свобода рук, карт-бланш blank years — years spent without sense or result — nycтые/бесплодные годы blank mind — used in the expressions: My mind went/w blank — I completely forgot what I had done/was suppos to do, etc. — У меня случился провал в памяти./Я совершенно ничего не помнил.

blank face — expressionless face, a face not showing one's feelings or thoughts —

невыразительное лицо; непроницаемое лицо/выражение лица

В. empty room — a room in which there are no people at the moment — пустая комната; комната, где никого нет shallow interests — interests that are not serious

—несерьезные/пустые интересы vacant house — a house where no one is living at present — пустой дом; дом, где никто не живет shallow girl — a girl, incapable of deep or serious thinking, a light-minded girl — легкомысленная/ограниченная/ пустая девица bright dress — a dress of intense colour — яркое платье bright face

—1. an intelligent face — умное лицо; 2. a cheerful and happy face, a face lit up with joy or hope — счастливое лицо bright child —"a clever child quick at learning

—способный/одаренный ребенок bright eyes-shining eyes — блестящие глаза ignorant person — a person who lacks knowledge or education — невежественный человек incomparable bore — an unbelievably dull and tiresome person —

редкостный зануда
Ex. VIII, p. 168

1. He stared at her blankly. 2. He opened his eyes for a short while but then blacked out/went under again. 3. A faint smile brightened her face for a moment. 4. There was a blank in my memory. 5. There are many exciting items in the newspaper today. 6. The silk stockings excited/aroused Judy's envy. 7. He used to be a bright pupil. 8. The letter excited great interest. 9. At times she felt miserable. 10. The trouble with him is that he is a shallow person. 11. This fruit is rather tasty. 12. Your friend differs much from what he used to be.
Ex. IX, p.169
Ex. X, p. 169

1. Do you know your part well or do you need a prompter? 2. Of course, Judy wasn't perfect (Judy had shortcomings/ drawbacks/faults), but at least she was honest. 3. She was very excited because it was her report that was to come first/because It was she who was to make a report first. 4. The girls were not allowed to leave the campus after the bell (had) struck ten. 5. Oliver Twist was brought up in a work-house. From an early age the children had to work hard, wear other people's cast-off clothes and eat only oatmeal. Most of the teachers were ignorant and treated the children very cruelly. 6. No prompting, please. She does know the lesson, she is just a little nervous. 7. You must fill in the blank/form and sign here. 8. Gemma's plain white dress was very becoming to her/became her very much. 9. Princess Maria was plain, but the smile brightening her face was charming. 10. Irene always dressed simply but tastefully/in good taste. 11. The boy's eyes were bright/were shining with excitement. 12. Judy realized her mistake only when her friends began to laugh. 13. What he needs now is fresh air and plain food. 14. At times it seemed to her that she would not be able to get over such grief. But she had a son to take care of. 15. I am not used to working with a cassette recorder yet. 16. The trouble is that I've lost the tickets and can't find them.

Ex. XI,p.169

Ex. XII, p. 170

1. The trouble with the book is that it's boring me to death. 2. It will take me at least a month to catch up with the group. 3. What did you buy with the money you got from you father? 4. I need an alarm clock to wake me up in time. 5. I've been writing the letter on and off/off and on for two days, now I've finished it at last. 6. I was perfectly sure to be put down at the desk next to the girl whom I didn't like to sit with. 7. His visit was a surprise to me, I didn't know he was in town. 8. When I come across some English words which I don't know, I always look them up in the dictionary. 9. In his speech he pointed out all the drawbacks of our work. 10. The drills on the English sounds bore me at times, but I know that they are very useful. 11. He helped me a lot with my mathematics, and I'm much obliged to him for it.
Ex. XIII, p. 170

1. You must catch up with the group no matter how hard you have to work. 2. He bored me to death with stories about his adventures. 3. He has at least five mistakes in every test. 4. The trouble is that I've got only fifty kopecks/with/on/about me. What can I buy with this money? 5. No matter how many new words there are in the text, I look all of them up in my dictionary. 6. You make mistakes in every other sentence. 7. I have time and again/I have repeatedly told Boris Petrov, a sophomore/a secondyear student, that if he wants to pass the exam, he should study harder. 8. All the students are expected/supposed to know when

the examinations begin. 9. It's difficult to confess/admit that you are wrong, but he had to do it/he was forced to do it. 10. I know that I have done wrong, but at least I have realized that I shouldn't have acted (in) that way/like that. 11. Oliver liked this lively/high-spirited/active bright boy very much, and they became friends. 12. I am obliged to you for your help. 13. You should read more, it will enable you to considerably enlarge your vocabulary. 14. He was staring at me blankly as though he didn't hear what I was saying. 15. Why should you get excited about/over so much trifles? 16. The teacher pointed out the worst/grossest mistakes in the dictation and plainly and clearly explained the rules one should use/to be used to avoid them. 17. Describe in detail your impressions of the trip. 18. I liked his bright mind and plain speech. 19. "What has agitated/excited the class so much?" — "A piece of news/News they have found exciting: they are going to have a new geometry teacher." 20. They used to be good friends. I can't imagine why they have quarrelled. 21. The old man pointed to the picture (hanging/ that hung) on the opposite wall.

Задание 3:

Ex. I, p.180

Ex. II, p.180

Ex. III, p.180

Ex. IV, p.180
Ex. VI, р. 181

1. In Great Britain the course of study for intending teachers is based on compulsory and optional subjects. 2. The Programme usually consists of three core components. Do you know what they are? 3. Are you going to specialize in Education? 4. It is important for a student to learn the use of different visual aids for/in/during his block-teaching practice. 5. My school practice began when I was in the first year. 6. At our department examinations are held at the end of each term; before each examination the students are given several days which they spend (on/in) revising the material. 7. The English club organized by the students is concerned with extracurricular activities. 8. Do you enjoy your lectures on Theory of Education? Are they supplemented by/with seminars?

Задание 4:

Topic 1

Your intentions as to your teaching career.

We all know that teaching is a great career and a noble profession. This career also has some benefits which are perhaps not associated with other professions. Let’s have a look on benefits which you a person gains being a teacher:

Mostly individuals who pursue teaching as a career have a specific passion and goal in their mind. So this career gives them the right platform to express and share their passion and expertise with others as well.

Becoming a teacher will also enable you to play an active role in others’ life and inspiring them. These “others” mostly rather always are students. When you share your knowledge with students, you manage to influence them in a positive way which also enables them to shape their character.

Teachers create a significant difference in lives of students. For a particular student, a teacher might be the only person who has trust in him and encourages him to give the best. In this way, you can bring change in a kid’s life everyday being his teacher.

Being a teacher, you can bring some changes in classroom and whole education process which you wished when you were a student.

You can change future of education being a teacher. When you get enough experience as a teacher, you are asked to mentor new teachers. In this way, you can share your experiences, wisdom and knowledge with new staff members. By teaching new things to new staff members, you will also influence education of those students who will have that new staff member as their teacher.

Teachers also have an opportunity to enjoy new experiences every year. Since new students replace old ones at start of new academic year, teachers get a chance to teach new students and enjoy different joys and challenges as well. In this field, you will never get bored of monotony.

Teachers also have to work only for a reasonable number of hours. In other professions, you may have to work for 10 to 12 hours but teaching job is just for 6 or maximum 8 hours. Teaching profession gives you more time to spend with your family. Teachers can also use this time to study further for getting better jobs.

Teachers also enjoy job security as there is no downsizing and layoffs like in industries.

Summer vacations are not only an attraction for students but for teachers as well. Teachers enjoy vacations of almost two months. Some teachers use this time to travel while some others start doing additional courses to earn more money.

Being a teacher not only renders you many benefits but also bless you with a satisfaction of changing lives of students in a positive way.

Topic 2

A highly qualified specialist is a treasure for the employer. How to become one.

In the modern professional world is a toughcompetitive fight. After all, judge for yourself: graduates in a certain specialty universities graduate in packs - not just dozens, but hundreds and thousands. But it's not everyone who can find an application for the chosen profession. If we look at vacancy announcements, the most common wording is "a highly qualified specialist is required". Consequently, there are two areas for studying the issue: the employer must learn to find these very specialists, and the potential worker should try to become such a specialist.

First of all, of course, thorough knowledge is notonly the basics - the depths of the profession. That is, a specialist is one who has learned all the pitfalls, all the complex moments and subtleties of the specialty, one who knows how to cope with potential problems. So, you can not do without education. But education must not be bought. After all, a highly qualified specialist can not have serious gaps in education. This is what you need to inspire students from the first days of training.

Secondly, a highly qualified specialist shouldto have experience. Otherwise, he simply could not get this qualification. Therefore, it is not the first time that he has to perform the activities of labor activity. Undoubtedly, all institutions of higher education provide for practice and internships. Students-teachers work out the pedagogical practice, interns - doctors.

But this, nevertheless, is not enough. After all, the employer is interested in getting a "finished product" - that is, an employee for whom you do not have to rework or respond to claims for poorly performed professional activities. For potential employees, this means only one thing: a highly qualified specialist in order to become such a person must begin to acquire labor experience as early as possible. Now students' work-outs are quite common, and almost all work at senior courses. You can begin to realize yourself in the chosen profession at almost any age. If you want to become an interpreter - start with small orders, with translations of articles "for yourself" - so you will not only gain skills and acquire new knowledge, you will also create your portfolio.

If it comes, say, about doctors - not badthe idea will be the work of junior medical staff at the very beginning of the training. Let the work of the orderly and low-paid, but it will allow you to learn the profession of the healer from the inside, from the basics, from the elementary.

High qualification must constantly develop. So, we should not miss any opportunity to improve professionally. Caring about the future, employers ensure the continuous development of their employees. But the specialist himself should show interest: read professional literature, attend seminars and master classes, take additional training courses. And, of course, try to keep abreast of all the current events in your industry. Without knowledge of a foreign language here also can not do. But effort and effort will pay off handsomely. For highly qualified professionals, employers are ready to actively fight, offering them the best conditions to keep a professional.

Topic 3

Education in the UK.

The UK is a highly developed country, in general, that’s why the educational system in the UK is well developed and highly ranked. It’s important to note that the country consists of four parts Wales, Scotland, England, and Northern Ireland. That fact causes some peculiarities of education in each part.

As in many other countries education in Great Britain involves nursery, primary, and secondary schools for school education; higher education institutions such as colleges and universities for higher education and also some establishments for further or adult education.

School education in the UK is compulsory and free from the age of five. Primary school is common for all students. But at the age of 11 children take exams and have the opportunity to choose the type of secondary school: grammar school with a more academic type of education; a secondary modern school which gives more general knowledge: or secondary technical school with a more practical type of education. Children are able to finish school at the age of 16 with the General Certificate of Education. There are also some alternatives to state schools such as public schools which usually have a high fee for education or becoming more and more popular home education.

On the other hand, higher education in the UK is not compulsory or free. Moreover, the cost of education in many universities is quite high. Nevertheless, it’s high standard with very strong college system and even stronger university system. Some of the UK universities are world–famous and international establishments. The most well–known are Oxford and Cambridge universities which are also the oldest ones. The duration of education for getting a Bachelor’s degree is three years and then students can continue studying to get Master’s or Doctor’s degree.

As far as I can see, the education in the UK is fundamental and high standard. There are many options for children so they are able to choose whatever they want.

Unit 6

Задание 1:

Ex. I, p. 193

P a t t e r n 1:1. You needn 't have answered this question. It was not meant for you. 2. He needn't have spoken so long, it bored everybody. 3. She needn't have got excited over a little thing like that. 4. Need you have bothered such a busy man with this unimportant question? 5. Why have you come to meet me? You needn't have bothered.

Ex. II, p. 193 (possible variants)

P a t t e r n 2:1. Today she has been answering her task even better than usual. 2. Are you ill? You are looking paler than usual. 3. The way to his office seemed to him on that day longer than usual. 4. He was in love, and the sun seemed to shine brighter than usual. 5. He is here already, he has come earlier than usual. 6. The soup tastes even better/worse than usual. 7. Unfortunately today I'll return later than usual.

P a t t e r n 3:1. She addressed us angrily in that harsh voice/ tone of hers. 2. Did you happen to see that charming fiance of Miranda's? 3. I didn't want to come up to you because you were so busy speaking to that dear old mother of yours. 4. I don't like the way she treats that miserable dog of hers. 5. I wish I knew how I should bring up/how to bring up this dear little son of mine. 6. No one any longer believes those tales of his. 7. If I were you, I should throw away these old shoes of yours. 8. Who could have done such a thing but that good-for-nothing cousin of yours? 9. I have heard a lot about that latest blockbuster of Stephen Spielberg's.

Ex. Ill, p. 193

1. You needn't have come here so early. No one has arrived yet. 2. Because of/on account of those tight shoes of hers she was hardly able to walk. We got to the bus stop later than usual and to be sure/and of course, the bus had already gone. 3. That day/On that day Judy was ill and feeling more miserable than usual. She didn't believe her eyes when she was brought a large box full of rose-buds — a gift from that mysterious guardian of hers.

Ex. IV, p. 193

Задание 2:

Ex. IV, p. 203
Ex. V, p. 204

1. handsome in a way; 2. to know from/by one's own experience; 3. He could lose money at bridge with a good grace. 4. to have bad luck at cards; 5. He didn't want to stick to bridge. 6. He was all to pieces. 7. I understand what he was driving at. 8. I landed at the creek of Tarumi. 9. on account of; 10. He never turned up.

Ex. VII, p. 204
Ex. IX а), р. 204

1. As he was busy yesterday, he couldn't join our company. 2. I tried to get him on the phone, but the line was busy/engaged. As I was busy, I decided to ring him up later. 3. "Is the place next to you vacant/free?" — "No, it is occupied." 4. When I entered the hall, all the seats were occupied, and I could hardly find a vacant/free seat. 5. "Will you be free tomorrow? Let's go to the country." — "No, I'll be busy at my office." 6. "Let's find a vacant classroom and rehearse our dialogue there." — "I'm afraid at this hour all the rooms are sure to be occupied." 7. Have you any free/ spare time today? 8. At this late hour all taxies will be busy. 9. I am young, healthy and free to do as I please.

Ex. X, p. 205

1. She stuck a few stamps on the letter and dropped it into the mail-box/letter- box/pillar-box. 2. The friends always stuck together. 3. The key stuck in the lock, and I couldn't open the door. 4. "Are you busy today?" — "Unfortunately I will hardly have any spare time." 5. His only son's death ruined all his hopes. 6. "Are there any vacant rooms in the hotel?" — "Unfortunately all the rooms are occupied." 7. London fogs are ruinous to health. 8. Has everybody copied out these sentences? I am going to rub them off the blackboard. 9. He had a strange habit of rubbing his hands (together) when he was excited. 10. Cold, hunger/starvation andwant/indigence ruined Hurstwood's health. 11. The speaker paused to collect his thoughts. 12. You needn't worry, he is a good driver. 13. A shot broke the silence. Mr. Curtel who had been peacefully nodding/dozing in his armchair jumped up and began to look about/round/around. 14. I didn't like swimming in the river on account of/because of the strong current. 15. The teacher waited/The teacher paused till everybody stopped talking and only then went on with his explanation. 16. They broke off as soon as I entered. 17. He promised to help me but broke his promise. 18. On seeing me he curled his lip and just nodded by way of salute/greeting (in salute).

Ex. XV, p. 207

1. My sister's husband was killed in the war, and soon after that her elder child died of pneumonia. No wonder, she was all to pieces/completely broken. 2. He went broke because he played cards and drank a lot. When I met him, he was down and out. Yet, he had always been a nice man, and there was no harm in him. 3. I got some glimmering of what she was driving at. 4. "She is rather a good cook, isn't she?" —

"Those sort of women always are." 5. Women think a lot of those sort of men. 6. You said you didn't turn up at the exam on Monday because you were all to pieces. I don't believe it. I'm sure you just funked it. 7. Couldn't you lend me a bit more money? I am down and out.

Ex. XXI, p. 208

1. This book is rather dull, you had better take another. 2. The suitcase is rather small, I am afraid you won't be able to pack all your clothes in/into it. 3. "Would you like another cup of tea?" — "Yes, rather." 4. This news rather excited him. 5. I would rather take this record. 6. He is ignorant rather than stupid./He is rather ignorant than stupid. 7. We were rather surprised at his early arrival. 8. She looked rather tired after her two-kilometre walk. 9. She seemed to me rather a good-looking girl/a rather good-looking girl.

Задание 3:

Ex. II, p. 216

Ex. IV, p. 217

wrestling — wrestler

cycling (велосипедный спорт) — cyclist weight-lifting (тяжелая атлетика) — weight-lifter

swimming — swimmer

diving (ныряние; прыжки в воду) — diver running — runner

mountaineering (альпинизм) — mountaineer boxing — boxer skiing — skier

racing (гонки; скачки) — racer (гонщик; скакун) hunting — hunter playing football — footballer, football-player

playing chess — chess player playing draughts — draughtplayer athletics — athlete skating — skater

playing volley-ball — volley-ball player playing basketball — basketballer, basketball player playing hockey — hockey player
Ex. Va), p. 217

Sport is very popular in Britain. In other words a lot of British people like the idea of sport, a lot even watch sport, especially or the TV. However, the number who actively take part in sport is probably quite small. On the whole British people prefer to be fat rather than fit.

The most popular spectator sport is football. Football is played on a Saturday afternoon in most British towns and the fans or supporters of a particular team will travel from one end| of the country to the other to see their team play.

Many other sports are also played in Britain, including golf in which you try to knock a ball into a hole; croquet in which you try to knock a ball through some hoops; basketball in which you try to get a ball into a net; tennis in which you try to hit a ball sc that your opponent cannot hit it and cricket which is played with a ball, but is otherwise incomprehensible. As you can see, if the ball had not been invented, there would have been no sport.

Actually that's not quite true. Athletics is not played with a ball, nor is horseracing. Perhaps that explains why they are not so popular as football.

Ex. VI, p. 217

Ex. VIII, p. 218

1. I prefer track-and-field/track and field athletics/(Br) athletics/(C/S) track to boxing and wrestling. 2. I am dreaming of setting (up) a record in swimming. 3. I can't run today. I'm in bad form/shape (out of form/shape). 4. People all over the world follow Olympic Games. 5. He spends a lot of time on athletic training. 6.I support /I am a fan of the football team "Spartak". 7. Our game ended in a draw. 8. He will willingly/ gladly/readily coach us in fencing. 9. Do you do/play/go in for track-and-field? 10. Wind-surfing and hang gliding have appeared quite recently. 11. The boy is dreaming of becoming a hockey player and asking his parents to buy him a stick and a puck/asking for a stick and a puck. 12. How many people are going to take part in the Institute chess competition? 13. Wouldn't you like to win the cup in this competition? 14. Who was the first to kick/score a goal? 15. Are you going to (attend) this match? 16. Archery has become rather a popular sport. 17. No one expected them to win with the score of two to nil. 18. He is good at figure skating'. 19. "Women don't play football, do they?" — "Yes, they do but rarely." 20. "Who won our Institute draughts competition?" — "One of the freshmen/ first-year students." 21. It's not worth joining two sports circles at a time. 22. I prefer calisthenics to any other sport. 23. We won't be able to compete with you, we are out of form/shape. 24. "Are you going to take part in the rowing competition?" — "Sure/ Certainly." 25. I am sure that the game will end in a draw/the game will be drawn. 26. We have a splendid gym and all the opportunities for good athletic training.
Ex. IX, p. 219

Ex. XIV, p. 221

1. I seem to know this man. He used to be an excellent runner and now he coaches/trains young sportsmen. 2. "Can it be true that he didn't take part in the cup game?" — "Yes, he was unlucky/ he had bad luck. On the eve of the game he was laid up/ fell ill with pneumonia." 3. I could hardly believe my ears when 1 heard that our Institute team had won with the score of six to nil (US six to zero). 4. You

needn't have hurried. The competition won't be held on account of bad weather. 5. He was awfully upset when he was told that his team had lost. 6. My elder sister has been practising calisthenics for three years. 7. I'm glad that today's game ended in a draw. We may have lost because many of us were out of form. 8. The track and field events have not begun yet. 9. Who set (up) the latest world record in the high jump?

Задание 4:

Topic 1

Olympic Games.

The world's greatest international sports games are known as the Olympic Games.

The Olympic idea means friendship, fraternity and cooperation among the people of the world. The Olympic Movement proves that real peace can be achieved through sport.

The Olympic emblem is five interlinked rings: blue, yellow, black, green and red. Any national flag contains at least one of these colours.

The original Olympic Games began in ancient Greece in 776 B.C. These games were part of a festival held every fourth year in honour of God Zeus at the place called Olympia. It was a great athletic festival, including competitions in wrestling, foot racing and chariot racing, rowing and others.

The games were for men only. Greek women were forbidden not only to participate but also to watch the Olympics.

The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896. Then they were resumed in London after the Second World War. Since then the Olympics are held every fourth year in different countries.

The ancient Greeks had no winter sports. Only in 1924 the first Winter Olympic Games were held in France. Now they are being held regularly.

Topic 2

Boxing is one of the oldest British sports. Golf was developed in Scotland and now is widely spread all over Britain.

Tennis, or lawn tennis, is also popular. The British hold their famous International Tennis Championship at Wimbledon in west London every June. People in Britain are also fond of swimming, boating and sailing. They are less interested in skiing and skating which are typically Russian sports.

Topic 3

Sport has always been popular in our country. There are different sporting societies and clubs in Russia. Many of them take part in different international tournaments and are known all over the world. A great number of world records have been set by Russian sportsmen: gymnasts, weightlifters, tennis players, swimmers, figure skaters, runners, high jumpers. Our sportsmen take part in the Olympic Games and always win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals.

Millions of people watch figure skating competitions, hockey and football matches, car races, tennis tournaments and other sports events. Certainly watching sports events and going in for sports are two different things.

In the past it was never admitted that professional sport existed in our country. The official point of view was that our sport was totally amateur. Now everybody knows that sport can be a profession and a business.

But sport can be fun as well. Besides, it helps to stay in good shape, to keep fit and to be healthy.

Doing sports is becoming more and more popular. Some people do it occasionally — swimming in summer, skiing or skating in winter — but many people go in for sports on a more regular basis. They try to find time to go to a swimming pool or a gym at least once a week for aerobics or yoga classes, body building or just work-out on a treadmill. Some people jog every morning, some play tennis.

For those who can afford it there are clubs where they give lessons of scuba diving or riding. In spring and summer young people put on their rollerskates and skate in the streets and parks.

Games have long been an important part of Russian culture, with many traditional games developing from the pagan circle dances (хороводы) performed during the pre-Christianity era. These traditional Russian games were often played in a circle or as a large group, making them an essential way to connect with the community.

While many classic Russian games are now part of history, others have survived and are experiencing a new surge of popularity in modern Russia. Now, you can discover the rules of some of the most well-known traditional Russian games.

Lapta (lapTAH) is one of the oldest Russian games, dating back to the 10th century in Kievan Rus'. With similarities to cricket, baseball and Rounders, Lapta is still popular in modern Russia today.

Lapta is a bat-and-ball game played on a rectangular field. The pitcher serves the ball, and the hitter uses the bat to hit the ball, then run across the field and back. The opposite team's task is to catch the ball and launch it at the hitter before he or she has finished running. Each run completed without being hit earns points for the team.

During the reign of Peter the Great, Lapta was used as a training technique for Russian troops. Over the centuries, the game has become a popular way to keep fit and build stamina and speed. Today, Lapta is an official sport in Russia.

One of the most popular games in modern Russia, Cossacks and Robbers is the Russian equivalent of Cops and Robbers.

Players divide up into two teams: the Cossacks and the Robbers. To begin the game, the Robbers hide within a previously agreed-upon area (e.g. a park or a neighborhood), drawing arrows with chalk on the ground or on buildings to indicate which way they have gone. The Cossacks give the Robbers a 5-10 minute head start, then begin looking for them. The game is played until all Robbers are caught.

The name of the game comes from Tsarist Russia, when Cossacks were the guardians of law and order. The game became popular in the 15th and 16th centuries. At that time, the game was an imitation of real life: free (воровские) Cossacks, i.e. those not in military service, formed gangs that robbed ships and dry land freight caravans, while the serving (городские) Cossacks hunted the gangs.

Topic 4

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